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a skyscraper that is visibly constructed from prefabricated elements

blow-through floors

floors with open windows that allow the wind to blow through the building

bundled tubes

a structural system that resembles a bundle of straws

caisson foundation

a box or cylinder that is sunk to the bedrock and then filled with concrete

floating raft foundation

a horizontal slab of concrete reinforced with layers of iron rails

framed tube

a reinforced tube, which is recognizable by the X-braced exterior


a skyscraper being a collection of individual plates

sky sickness

sickness that is the result of skyscraper sway


a three-dimensional steel grid that carries both the inner structure and the outer walls of a skyscraper

stack effect

the upward movement of air inside skyscrapers


a swinging motion that is most strongly felt near the top of a skyscraper

topping out

when a new skyscraper has reached its highest structural point


the combination of a core tube containing the elevator and other mechanical services, and an outer tube that doubles as the outer wall of the skyscraper

tuned mass damper

a weight added to the top of a skyscraper to distort swaying motion